Tobacco

See also parasite blend and upstate NY farming

Tobacco is a great horse and goat dewormer [1].

Growing and laws [2] [3]

Growing

Sodium important [4] [5]

Rotten wood used as fertilizer [6].

Harvest

When leaves are still green or just start to turn yellowish (starts at the bottom of the plant) after flowering and before frost. The stems should get brittle [7]. You harvest the lower leaves first and harvest up the plant as the leaves are "ripe".

Drying

Typically done with heat and leaves strung up [8]. I think making a large mesh sock bag attached to a fan where the leaves are free blowing in the bag would be a good easy method.

Curing

This method uses low temp drying of preferably leaves that turned yellow on the plant and treating with dilute nitric acid to "cure" (remove active ammonia) the tobacco without producing harmful nitrosamines typically produced from the reacting of ammonia with other compounds. Not only will the nitric acid washes convert the ammonia to ammonium with the low ph and bind it producing ammonium nitrate, but also it will prevent the creation of more ammonia to begin with.

  1. Pluck the leaves when ripe
  2. Wash leaves with a soapy solution containing cassia and oregano essential oil to remove anaerobic and pseudomonas bacteria and rinse clean. Careful not to bruise the leaves.
  3. Place in Drying bag
  4. Once a day while drying spray with dilute Nitric acid or neutral 1% Hydrogen peroxide.
  5. Stack [9] and allow to warm for a day (make sure not growing mold and not get over 100 degrees)
  6. Return to Drying bag.
  7. Repeat spray with nitric or h2o2 and stacking and drying three times over a week or so (Dry, Dip/stack, Dry, Dip/stack, Dry, Dip/stack, Dry).

Notes

There is a gas supposedly that when used during drying or curing causes the tobacco leaf to swell twice the size [10] I am guessing it is oxidative since I have read patents where peroxide and peroxidase was added to tobacco to cause it to swell. The gas is likely nitrous oxide [11].

Microbial nitrate reductase and anaerobic or acidic conditions lead to nitrosamines and most of the nitrosamines are produced from when the leaf starts turning yellow to when it turns brown [12].

Nitrate reducing bacteria are anaerobic and use nitrate during periods of low oxygen [13]

Proteobacteria, pseudomonas, bacillus reduce nitrate and mkst nitrate reducing types only use nitrate when oxygen is not available [14]. Also actinobacteria and gram positive[15]

Pseudomonas dominate [16].

Nitrosamines not a problem in flue cured tobacco [17] probably because of the good airflow

Serine aminotransferases convert glyoxylate to glycine releasing ammonia [18] incubating with glyoxylate and ammonium it inhibits the SGAT enzyme [19]. Ammonium is produced from ammonia at low pH [20]. Nitric acid can produce glyoxylic acid from glyoxal [21]

From glyoxylic acid to glycine is reductive [22] so nitric may cause an excess of glyoxylic acid coupled with low ph making ammonium would be idea to poison SGAT.

Hydrogen peroxide reacts with ammonia to produce Nitrogen and water or oxygen which reacts with ammonia [23]

Ammonium probably can't react with h2o2 only ammonia at high ph [24] which would make sense as common cat pee removal is baking soda and h2o2 [25]

1% H2O2 is good at removing ammonia [26]

decarboxylation of glyoxylate happens in peroxisomes via h2o2 [27] and this is enhanced with sucrose and ph 7 and magnesium chloride [28]

Oxidase (cytochrome?) And peroxidase killed at 87c and 65c respectively [29].

Horseradish peroxidase can help bleach clorophyl [30] as can h2o2 [31].

decarboxylation seems to help glycine convert to ammonia but it converts glyoxylate to co2 [32] which makes sense since glycine is basically ammonia with co2 on it.

Gyloxylate seems to be degraded with h2o2 at neutral pH [33]

Glyoxylate is decarboxylated by h2o2 [34] to probably just co2

low ph ammonia (ammonium) leads to toxic nitrogenous compounds [35].

And nh4 reacts with oxygen to produce nitrite which creates nitrosamines [36]

Low pH reduces glycine to serine [37] and inhibitors [38].

Toasting tobacco to remove ammonia [39]

H2o2 probably makes tobacco leaves turn brown [40]

Reduces nitrogen in the leaves [41]

Typically cured at 110-140 f [42]

Sugar, Sawdust, and Activated Charcoal can probably help remove the nitrogen faster [43] sugar may reduce formation of nitrosamines in favor of other amines [44].

Ammonia is the form of the nitrogen [45] [46]

Ammonia reacts with nitric acid to produce ammonium nitrate [47]

Ammonium Nitrate decomposes at elevated temperatures [48]

Glycine is what's converted to ammonia [49] [50]

High pH sodium carbonate solution extracts nicotine [51] so keep liquids to acidic to not loose it.

Ammonium nitrate stability [52]

Oxidation and lowering pH is what takes place [53] so nitric acid treatments is likely a good thing.

Potassium causes dark ash [54] and nitric acid might extract it.

Potassium nitrate plus a potassium chloride produces potassium nitrate [55]

Potassium chloride is likely the form of potassium in leaves [56]

Boiling water extracts nicotine so stay away from that when curing [57].

Ammonium nitrate has no smell [58] and burns with sawdust [59]

Reduction in nitrosamine for production of a safer cig [60] caused by NO and NO2 [61] and NH3 ammonia is essential in production of nitrosamines [62] so nitric acid as NO3 and converting ammonia to ammonium nitrate and keeping low temp should prevent it.

Curing information [63]

Tea towel can make them flat and smooth during drying [64]

Seeds

Wild tobacco [65]

Various hierlooms [66]

Producing seeds [67]

Typically deflowered so leaves grow to full potential [68]

Genetics

You can cross species and sometimes genus [69].

Even if the species don't cross it is still important to grow them together as the genetics will drift and dna is taken in by the roots.

Medicinal uses

mixed with lime or chalk to whiten teeth, used to make people unconscious via snuff. Mostly used topically. Inhaling the smell of crushed fresh leaves is said to relieve persistant headaches perhaps migraine migraine treatment also yaws. Possibly treat cancer and heals all manner of wounds. Parkinson's diphtheria typhus bacillus of cholera [70]

Seems to work well against h pylori and perhaps other spiral bacteria like those causing yaws

Might be good to wipe the butt with a fresh leaf which can stop itchiness due to parasitic worms like pinworm or strongyloides.

Nicotine and thyme synergy against parasitic worms [71] and rheumatoid arthritis [72].

Negative effects

Smoking was known by the natives to cause weakness and fainting [73] which is likely due to COX2 overexpression by people who already have high COX2 levels.

Many negative effects especially for chronic recreational use [74]

Nicotine

water soluble and will leave organic solvents into water. Nitrosation is the cancer risk, metabolized by glucuronidation [75].

Strong COX2 inducer (increaser)

Energy

Growing tobacco for energy production including sugar and oil [76].

3x the ethanol per acre as corn and 3x the oil per acre than soybean [77].

Genetic engineering tobacco for max energy production |#.

Tobacco stalks as an energy source [78].

Analysis of tobacco biomass for energy use. Stems have about double energy capacity as leaves. Leaves have about as much sugar as switchgrass or miscanthus and 1-4% oil per dry weight which can be genetically engineered up to 7%. Stems are 60% saccharides which can be used for bioethanol production [79].

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