Personality Based Game

See also Personality and BlockchainGame

Word count and word plurality [1]

4 sides of the mind [2]

Cognitive function test [3]

Todo: read john beebe [4], finish jung, create type grid jesus, explore the 4-square theory [5], get CPT book, make a personality test.


Fi - Morals

Ti - Synthesis

Fe - Ethics

Te - Rationale

Si - Comparison

Ni - Conclusion

Se - Awareness

Ne - Novelty


8 traits

Te + Si = Method

Te + Ni = Wisdom

Fe + Si = Service

Fe + Ni = Sympathy

Ne + Ti = Invention

Ne + Fi = Empathy

Se + Ti = Creation

Se + Fi = Inspiration

16 traits

Te + Si = Experience

Si + Te = Method

Te + Ni = Knowledge

Ni + Te = Wisdom

Fe + Si = Support

Si + Fe = Responsibility

Fe + Ni = Sympathy

Ni + Fe = Understanding

Ne + Ti = Invention

Ti + Ne = Theory

Ne + Fi = Hope

Fi + Ne = Empathy

Se + Ti = Creation

Ti + Se = Design

Se + Fi = Entertainment

Fi + Se = Inspiration


Te + Ni = Knowledge - explaining the problem helps you realize the solution.

Swapping traits say Te + Ni with Ti + Ne or Ne + Ti tend to produce similar but not identical results.

Convergence vs divergence

Convergent (active) vs divergent (passive) functions [6]

Basically convergent is either in 1st or 3rd or 5th or 7th spot. Divergent is in 2nd or 4th or 6th or 8th spot. Basically convergent is if it is the leader in a trait or the follower.

Extraverted loops

Ne-Te : Abstract logic of external reality [7]

Introverted loops

See cognitive personality theory

Fi-Si : Limbic adaptation [8]

Si-Fi : I feel I deserve it [9]

Ti-Ni : Synergy [10]

Ti-Si : Hack [11]

Fi-Ni : Knowing your right

Ti-Si : I don't think I deserve it [12]

Quintessential pairs

Ne-Si : Ne presents memes to Si to match to memory. What this means is this pair in introverts is strong meaning much of the ideas come from long term memory. In extraverts this pair is weak and so most of the ideas come from short term memory.

Compensatory pairs

These pairs are only used together when the person feels like they have to be for a given situation. Ideally these pairs of cognitive functions would not be used together. The closer these pairs are together in the personality stack, the more likely they are to be used like this.

Ne-Si : Collect [13]

This can be collecting items or ideas. This is done when someone feels like no one has documented all the cool things they have discovered. They don't want to document them, but feel a compulsion to do so since no one else has stepped up. Si or even Ni dom's should be documenting things (like write a book or make a documentary) or making historical things accessible (like a museum or archive) with the help of Te or Fe, but often times they don't take the time since they are caught up in their own plans and goals. The person who falls in the Ne-Si trap really just wants to analyze or judge the ideas or things but aren't sure they will be able to find them in the future if they need to reference them, so they collect them instead for future analysis. Sadly the compensatory use of Ne-Si often leads to hoarding since the user never finds the time to fully analyse and then become able to get rid of the things they have collected.

Might Ne draw on Si to find the possibilities? [14] I don't think so because ENFP's for example have ideas of possibilities and their Si is in their 4th slot which would assume they are bad at it yet they aren't. In my opinion Ne gathers data in the moment to generate ideas, not from memory ideally. I'm sure it does access Si but not at a high bandwith. My guess is it accesses Fi or Ti much more.


Wisdom with Inspiration

Invention with Support

Method with Empathy

Creation with Sympathy


Since most women have Fe and most men Fi, it would make sense that Sympathy is more feminine and might be described as Motherly, and Empathy is more masculine and might be described as Fatherly.

Sympathy can also be thought of as "interpersonal understanding" wheras empathy can be thought of as "intrapersonal understanding".

ENFJ's which lead with sympathy known as "squad mom" [15]

Good NFJ healing/organize spec [16]


16 Types

4 sides of the mind [17]

I gave each type a descriptive name, and then below that is the MBTI 4 letter personality, Prime cognitive functions (MBTI/SPT), descriptive words for their paired traits, Shadow type (superego/SPT), shadow cognitive functions (superego/SPT), and shadow paired traits.

Empowerer, Designer

Ti Fi Ne Se Si Ni Fe Te

INTP prime - Ti Ne Si Fe - Theory (Ti+Ne), Responsibility (Si+Fe) || ISFP shadow - Fi Se Ni Te - Inspiration, Wisdom || ENTJ aspirational - Te Ni Se Fi ||


Ne Se Ti Fi Fe Te Si Ni

ENTP prime - Ne Ti Fe Si - Invention, Support || ESFP shadow - Se Fi Te Ni - Entertainment, Knowledge || INTJ aspirational - Ni Te Fi Se ||


INFP prime - Fi Ne Si Te - Empathy, Method || ISTP shadow - Ti Se Ni Fe - Design, Understanding || ENFJ aspirational - Fe Ni Se Ti ||


ENFP prime - Ne Fi Te Si - Hope, Experience || ESTP shadow - Se Ti Fe Ni - Creation, Sympathy || INFJ aspirational - Ni Fe Ti Se ||

Mentor, Paragon

INFJ prime - Ni Fe Ti Se - Understanding, Design || ISTJ shadow - Si Te Fi Ne - Method, Empathy || ENFP aspirational - Ne Fi Te Si ||


ENFJ prime - Fe Ni Se Ti - Sympathy, Creation || ESTJ shadow - Te Si Ne Fi - Experience, Hope || INFP aspirational - Fi Ne Si Te ||

Sage, Attendant

INTJ prime - Ni Te Fi Se - Wisdom, Inspiration || ISFJ shadow - Si Fe Ti Ne - Responsibility, Theory || ENTP aspirational - Ne Ti Fe Si ||


ENTJ prime - Te Ni Se Fi - Knowledge, Entertainment || ESFJ shadow - Fe Si Ne Ti - Helpfulness, Invention || INTP aspirational - Ti Ne Si Fe ||


ISTP prime - Ti Se Ni Fe - Design, Understanding || INFP shadow - Fi Ne Si Te || ESTJ aspirational - Te Si Ne Fi ||


ESTP prime - Se Ti Fe Ni - Creation, Sympathy || ENFP shadow - Ne Fi Te Si || ISTJ aspirational - Si Te Fi Ne ||

Designer, Theorist

ISFP prime - Fi Se Ni Te - Inspiration, Wisdom || INTP shadow - Ti Ne Si Fe || ESFJ aspirational - Fe Si Ne Ti ||


ESFP prime - Se Fi Te Ni - Entertainment, Knowledge || ENTP shadow - Ne Ti Fe Si || ISFJ aspirational - Si Fe Ti Ne ||

Paragon, Mentor

ISTJ prime - Si Te Fi Ne - Method, Empathy || INFJ shadow - Ni Fe Ti Se - Understanding, Design || ESTP aspirational - Se Ti Fe Ni ||

Conductor, Caretaker

ESTJ prime - Te Si Ne Fi - Experience, Hope || ENFJ shadow - Fe Ni Se Ti - Sympathy, Creation || ISTP aspirational - Ti Se Ni Fe ||


ISFJ prime - Si Fe Ti Ne - Responsibility, Theory || INTJ shadow - Ni Te Fi Se - Wisdom, Inspiration || ESFP aspirational - Se Fi Te Ni ||


ESFJ prime - Fe Si Ne Ti - Support, Invention || ENTJ shadow - Te Ni Se Fi || ISFP aspirational - Fi Se Ni Te ||


Types commentary [18]

Compressing the types to 8

Expanding the types

Use cognitive function test. Seems like secondary type is a reflection of the first from the unconcious. So the 8th function of the type is usually the leader of the secondary stack.

8 Abilities

These are how developed your characters cognitive functions (personality traits) are, and apply to skill power.

Se: Charm

Ne: Inspiration

Te: Methodology

Fe: Restoration

Si: Formulation

Ni: Organization

Ti: Cogence

Fi: Protection

10 Attributes

One attribute per Ability and then either proactive (extraverted) or introspection (introverted).

Se: Glamour, Proactivity

Ne: Perception, Proactivity

Te: Cognizance, Proactivity

Fe: Favor, Proactivity

Si: Talent, Introspection

Ni: Tactics, Introspection

Ti: Logic, Introspection

Fi: Devotion, Introspection

Physical factors

Introspection improves health and mana (and also maybe regen out of combat)

Proactivity might increase regen in combat

Health: Si, Fi, Se, Fe

Energy: Ni, Ti, Ne, Te


to play: rust, gw2, osrs, destiny, dark souls, eve, world of warships

Personality Based experience design and shadow personality theory


This book is free and open source. Feel free to publish, modify, change or otherwise adapt or not adapt this book and distribute it freely or for profit. Ideas are the common heritage of mankind, and if we support a better future, then we should never pay-wall our ideas. All I ask is that if you use significant portions of his work in your own works, that you reference the name of this book so those interested can find it.

I want to promise you that this book will not waste your time, there will be minimal rambling, and each sentence will be well thought out to have maximum impact.

As a warning to the future, these ideas should never be used to put a person in a box and decide for them what they should do or how they should act in a virtual or real world. Doing such will not work and people never fit into a box. If they are forced into one they will want to get out (think Neo escaping The Matrix). This is merely a toolset to better design and tailor an experience to broad categories of human personalities. It's goal is to make it feel more fulfilling, impactful, and fun to the participants. It is intended to potentially give the participants real world personal growth opportunities from the experience, no matter whether the experience is real or virtual.

As a final warning, this is not a "gamification" book. We are not going to try to learn from predatory slot machine, loot box, or 'number go up' mechanics to make our real world communities more addictive or to manipulate the participant to give us more money. We are not trying to analyze metrics like "player retention time" to massage our design to manipulate the participant to spend more time with us. In fact this book and topic of study is the remedy for that: We are trying to learn and put into practice how to make a participant authentically enjoy and get real world benefit from our experience. A happy, healthy and wise participant who wants to share the experience that we created in order to help his friends and family also achieve personal growth and work better together - this is our goal. Happy people make healthy communities, and healthy communities mean, as the steward of such, we can achieve lasting success. If you are reading this book after some video game crash of the mid 2020's (see video game crash of 1983), then chances are this new perspective on design is the purge the industry needs in order to rebuild in a more healthy and sustainable way. Any new technology or paradigm will experience booms and busts as it finds its footing.

Personality Based Experience Design

Whatever type of game or virtual (or even real life) experiences you are designing, you should be able to gain valuable insights from this work. Primarily our focus is on Shared, Cooperative and Synergistic Virtual Experiences, and of those primarily Multiplayer Games, or single player games in a shared world. The reason for this is these sorts of experiences benefit the most from tailoring them based on participant personality. Competition can be included, and can even be primary, but our perspective is on cooperation first. That said, we will give some example ways to integrate personality into purely 1 on 1 competition designs as well, starting from first principles by analyzing Chess and Wild West Duels, and progressing from there. There is no coding or exclusive gamer jargon here so if you are not making a game, every word should still be just as valuable and pertinent to you, as it is to a game designer. If you are designing or building a shared experience between humans, or are a Writer working on a realistic fictional drama, or even a Community Manager wanting to better appreciate how and why people interact the way they do, you are in the right place. Maybe you are an AI researcher who wants to make AI personalities more realistic by imitating a human personality. That would be something this book could certainly help you with, albiet with somewhat scary potential implications. Or what if you are a hospice manager wanting to design the experience for guests to help promote a hopeful view of the afterlife. The applications are limitless.

This book is based on many hours of learning and understanding about personality and how it impacts what people find fun. I want to reiterate the notion of 'Fun', and how fun is absolutely essential to personal growth and a sucessful experience. We will deconstruct what fun is, in this book, so buckle up. I don't want you to think I am claiming these analyses and designs are absolute and objective truths. They are practical truths, distilled and formed from extensive research and observation. Some might be off the mark and not truths at all, and after you have read through I hope you contact me and let me know what I got wrong. Where possible I will give you the sources used in my research, or at least provide you the logical steps used to reach such conclusions.

Another reaction you might have to this is "Duh this is all common sense". Nothing would please me more than that reaction. That would mean that I have arrived at some intuitively known principles in experience design that have broad applicability. If you feel this way I encourage you to share this book with others who you wish shared a similar common sense understanding as you do. You may be familiar with the saying, originating from Aurthur Schopenhauer, that the truth passes through three stages; first it is ridiculed, then there is violent opposition, then it is accepted as self-evident. If anything I say is self evident, then that means it has withstood this test.

Just so you get a sense of what to expect from this book, I am an INTP and not an INTJ which is another type who could typically write a technical book like this. An INTJ (one who primarily uses the Ni-Te 'wisdom' trait) would likely give you a very complete accounting of all the various methods sucessful games and experiences employ and which are wise and which are unwise to emulate (using primarily Te). As an INTP (one who primarily uses the Ti-Ne 'theory' trait) I take from a limited set of examples that feel especially relevant to the topic at hand and deconstruct why they do various things, the impact these things had on the experience, and how these things could be potentially improved. An INTP would also provide a very complete picture of all the possibilities one can extrapolate from these understandings (using primarily Ne). An INTP might also be good to write a pioneering work on a topic, like this is, since there just aren't many experiences that directly integrate Jungian personality types into their design, yet. Hopefully this book helps change that paradigm. My cognitive function stack is Ti, Fi, Ne, Ni, Fe, Se, Te, Si. High Fi helps me to understand how aspects of design make me and others feel. Ni is used to try to get all the data on what we are considering.

You knew you would have to do research on personality types to create your shared experience. I did the dirty work for you and hopefully what you have here is a one-stop-shop for you to comfortably do your research within, while having your favorite drink by the fireplace. Or perhaps more apt to the current age, while listening to youtube videos or netflix in the background. Of course I suggest you find more and differing sources, but I believe this is a good place to start.

This book is broken down into two parts.

Part 1

The first part includes considerations and example design of building a shared virtual experience (SVE) on the foundation of Jungian personality. The basis here is that we can determine someone's personality type and then tailor to them specific tools that will allow them to effectively contribute in a cooperative environment and feel like their toolset is an extension of themselves. Think of it like the Construct in "The Matrix". They feel like they are the character, and that they enjoy the work they take on within the team.

In using Jungian personality traits, there has been given a well thought out framework for it, and it is the basis of continued exploration and research in this space. It is known as MBTI, or Meyers Briggs Type Indicator. This system organizes Jung's observations and conclusions from his work "Psychological Types" into 16 distinct but often overlapping types. We will be deep diving into each one and what makes each type tick and how they relate to the other types including teamwork but also how the different types are similar and overlap. This will include lots of original thinking and logical conclusions.

Optionally we also use a cognitive function ranking to gain an even deeper more granular understanding of a person than just their 4 letter personality type portrays, even moreso than the stereotypical ranking of the 8 cognitive functions within an MBTI type. Basically, people are unique even if they are of the same basic type, and this tool gives us an ability to peer deeper.

One observation I have made is that oftentimes people who are introverted in everyday life become extroverts in structured experiences, and extroverts in daily life become introverts in these experiences. People oftentimes use time limited experiences like these as an escape, and thus a rest from their everyday mentality. We will discuss ways to account for this in design.

We will give some example personality tests you can develop to help your participants to choose a role that they will find fun and rewarding based on their individual personality type. In this book we have hopefully gleaned all the important discoveries from all of these (Jung, MBTI, and cognitive function ranking) and also added more framework on top that is supported by the aforementioned pillars and helps bring this understanding of psychology into clearer focus for the layperson. For example, the naming cognitive functions and their interactions to be more straightforward to everyday non-scientific thinking. Part one is what you are looking for when it comes to integrating Jungian personality into the experience you are designing.

Part 2

The second part explores other factors that contribute to a compelling experience. It includes aspects to include in the experience that will draw participants together voluntarily to work cooperatively and synergistically. It also will define concepts that are important design considerations and how to approach them to provide the best experience for your patticipants.

When it comes to teamwork, you can force your participants to work together, but it makes for a more compelling experience if they have freewill and choose themselves to work together. Achieving this aim means also allowing them to opt-out and work alone, which perhaps is not as efficient but possible to experience for much (but maybe not all) of the content.

We will discuss aspects of an experience that can cause players to self organize into 2-8 person groups for temporary goals, and up to 70+ people for completing monumental tasks with mutual benefit. We will also talk about the self organizing of huge long term communities formed for mutual benefit or shared sympathy with a cause.

Part 1 - Personality Based Experience Design

Chapter 0 - Introduction to all 16 personality types

Big 5 vs MBTI

Big 5 is behaviorally based, mbti is cognitive based [19] youtube:16 Personalities, The Big 5 & MBTI. Big 5 is best for people who want to manipulate peoples behaviors, whereas mbti is better for understanding peoples motivations.

To me knowing factors of yourself like you are highly empathetic or neurotic is great but it doesn't have any predictive power outside predicting how you will react to a certain stimulus. I have participated in many psychological experiments in undergrad and it is clear that every one was designed to basically manipulate or coerce a response from you. This sort of trigger-reaction is very Big 5. But that is not what I am looking at when designing an experience, and I hope you are not really interested in that all too much either or else this book won't be much use for you. If you are looking for a Big 5 approach, Books on "Gamification" might be more up your alley.

When I look at how I score in certain traits, that doesn't really help me understand more about myself. That is something I already inherently know, and a quiz to tell me how empathetic I am doesn't help much because I already know roughly how empathetic I am. What MBTI can do for us instead is help you understand more about yourself. If we can find a "best fit" box for our method of approaching life, we can study that box and learn our inherent challenges or possible pitfalls while also recognizing what we may tend to be strong at. This can give us a broader scope of how we tend to think and act and reflect on how we can improve ourselves. If you are trying self improvement from a Big 5 perspective it doesn't give you much leverage. You want to be less neurotic? Just be less neurotic, is what it seems to give you, or else perhaps try this prescription drug to make you less neurotic. But with mbti you can learn about what extraverted feeling is, recognize it in yourself and how you use it, and practice using it more or putting yourself in situations or around people that will help bring out your strongest traits. One easy example is as an INTP I have Extraverted feeling as my 4th function. This function some call the "motivator" function. And yes I am entirely motivated for what I do as how it helps or could help people. But when I realize that only about 1/8th of the types have this same motivating factor that I do, it helps me not to judge others who are less concerned and motivated with how what they are doing helps others. And then studying their types even more, almost every type is actually better than me at either directly helping others or understanding what others are going through. So the Jungian mbti theory can absolutely help a person with personal growth whether it is their own growth as a person by understanding themselves better, or understanding others and therefore becoming less judgmental of them.

It is a very teamwork oriented theory. I have strong Ti, you have strong Ni and we can both work together to figure out some mysteries of the universe, for example. One reason why psychologists tend to shy away from mbti is because it sort of concludes that we are all designed to work together in teams. But that can be intelligently designed by a creator, or that we evolved to work together and our brains fit certain patterns and that each pattern is useful or required to produce a functioning society. Also how these personality types are produced via homologous recombination or are inherited, is also a mystery. From my basic observation it seems that not many people in the same family are the same type, which to me means they might be mixed during genetic recombination. Or it is possible that they are a product of your genetics and/or environment, and that family members interaction to you can help create your personality that is different and complimentary to theirs. In any case there is very much mystery in the mbti theory and to many scientists this seems mystical and unprovable. But from my perspective if the theory works, then that proves it well enough to use it, and we can take our time uncovering how exactly it works in nature as we go. For example, the liver works and we can observe it working, whether or not we understand how or why it works. The same can be true of personality types.

That said, according to my "middle ground" theory, it is still probably best to understand and use both Big 5 and MBTI, but in this book we are going to limit it to MBTI, as it is more useful to us and the scope of this book is already quite vast for bringing personality and experience design together. Bringing MBTI and Big 5 together isn't in my purview, but if you want that, check out "Cognitive Personality Theory" on youtube and his $12 e-book.

Shadow Thesis (SPT)

Are our dreams a glimpse into our shadow?

The Gospel of Thomas [20] see also bible seems to talk at length about becoming one with your shadow and that it is essentially the basis for salvation. Also it seems to allude to personality disorder.

Also known as "Shadow Personality Theory" (SPT) or "Shadow-Prime Theory"

Great input on this theory on ISFP (the shadow of me, INTP) reddit [21]

Thoughts on the shadow [22], [23], [24], [25], [26]

CS Joseph part 1 superego [27] part 2 superego [28]

Tackling cognitive personality theory [29] I don't think a continuum between Te and Ti for example can work because then seeing most isfp's for example with higher Ti than Te doesn't make sense and invalidates MBTI. The SPT does not invalidate MBTI. I am starting to see CPT as more of a method for improving functions, while SPT is a theory on which functions you should work on.

Based on the evidence that in cognitive function tests ISFP's (FiSeNiTe) score higher than expected in Ti and probably Ne. Lets use that data to assume that Fi and Ti are on some spectrum of balance. That by definition (If we still believe mbti) means that you have two stacks, one led by Fi, FiSeNiTe and another led by Ti, TiNeSiFe. So the "looser" between Ti and Fi will have thier stack repressed and therefore known as the shadow function. It runs in the unconcious and will break through into the conscious (prime) from time to time.

A different new theory [30] critical thoughts of mbti [31]

What I am saying here is to forget the unconscious and subconscious personality stacks proposed by those that think there are 4 sides to the mind [32] from Beebe's work (youtube: CS Joseph). All that matters for us right now is the Ego and Superego. I don't like these terms because they have lots of irrelevant connotations. I am going to call the ego the prime personality and the superego the shadow personality. They are closely entwined and inverse mirror images, just like a real shadow. There are no other sides of the mind. While it is helpful to consider the unconscious and subconscious stacks in theory (which I am re-terming aspirational and inspirational respectively) to conceptualize things (and we will even use these, and more, in the sections to come), they have no basis in reality. In other words they don't exist. At all. They are only useful conceptually. The shadow personality (aka superego) actually does exist in the real world and chances are you will see it show up in a cognitive function test like these [33] [34].

I will partly counter this argument in later sections and propose that they might exist within us but at an even deeper and even less used place, but for now focusing on what psychologists term ego and superego (prime and shadow) will get us really far and help us see the prioritization in the mind.

We all know the prime personality, it is your standard MBTI stack of 4 functions. Next we will describe what the shadow is for every personality type and what it means if you have a strong or weak shadow. As a primer, the stronger light and darkness you are exposed to (the more adversity in your life) the stronger your shadow, for better or worse. We will describe this in depth.

Case study similar to me [35] more case studdies (scroll down) [36], [37] I need to go through these links and pick out all the related links like them [38] SeFiNiTiTeNeSiFe (ISFP) [39] [40]

Aka superego and it is understood similarly to me by cs joseph where it is order vs chaos, lawful vs chaotic [41]. Using his terminology, the ego brings order and the superego chaos. So in our terminology the prime personality stack is lawful and the shadow stack is chaotic. So if you are high in shadow functions then you would be a more chaotic person. However I don't believe cs joseph's proposal of the 4 sides of the mind where there are subconscious and unconscious. I don't see any evidence for them but I do see evidence for what he calls the superego which is what I call the shadow. I just think there are two personality stacks constantly working in tandem, the prime and the shadow. We should see evidence of this in that the shadow functions rank high but not higher than the principle functions in a congnitive function test like these [42] [43].

Chaotic might also be a cluster B personality disorder [44].

Actual function opposites [45] also line up with the SPT shadow (aka superego). Now this person figures that the INTP shadow is an anti-ENTJ [46]. Now if you take ENTJ cognitive functions and apply the standard opposite attitudes [47] you arrive at ISFP. Again, validating SPT.

Traditionally the shadow was considered the 4 functions of your main 4 but in opposite order. So for an INTP who is Ti Ne Si Fe, the shadow would have been thought of as Fe Si Ne Ti. John Beebe proposed to start with the 4 functions and expand it to 8 and continue on the logical ordering after the first 4 [48]. So this would be, for the Beebe version of the INTP 8 stack: Ti Ne Si Fe Te Ni Se Fi. However when I tested myself Ti and Fi were my highest followed by Ne then Ni. I believe a lot of others test similarly to this as well in a test like [49] [50]. So my idea is kind of a combination of the two previous thoughts, you have the 8 beebe functions but then the last 4 (shadow) is inverse the order of Beebe. Sort of like the first 4 mirror the last 4 and so the last 4 are in inverse order. For the INTP this would give us Ti Ne Si Fe Fi Se Ni Te. But I don't see them in a straight-8 long order I see them close to, parralel (prime is concious and shadow is unconcious [suppressed]) and overlapping each other like this:

Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te


Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
    Fi  Se  Ni  Te


Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
      Fi  Se  Ni  Te

It kind of does look like a shadow if the sun is shining from the upper left (bad joke). So it is kind of like a slider with how strong your shadow is compared to your prime. Or a 3D model of SPT: Instead of 8 functions in a straight line think of them wrapped around. So if the INTP 8 functions are Ti Ne Si Fe Te Ni Se Fi, think of it like the Ti and Fi are connected like the clasp on a necklace or conjoined twins.

So what this means is the second strongest function of an INTP may very well be Fi. But this does not mean that Fi is part of the main personality stack, it is still in the shadow. So an optimal way of functioning in society is the Ti Ne Si Fe for the INTP however they may have this dual personality acting in the background that is little less developed than the main INTP stack, and this is of the ISFP stack. What this means is thier "darkside" is ISFP and sometimes a glimpse of this can come out especially when the INTP is stressed, and usually shows up as a 1st-3rd loop, so in the INTP a Fi-Ni loop which looks a lot like self righteousness. They are obviously not as adept at consciously using the ISFP stack and so when they do use it, it can be explosive. ISFP for the INTP is usually called the superego [51], here we are calling it the shadow.

Reading this [52] gave me the idea that when acting out we go to our shadow as to not tarnish our 4 main cognitive functions. For example I would never try to make someone feel stupid around me when I am pissed at them because that would devalue my Ti. So I use my shadow functions to make someone feel bad about something they did while not loosing my credibility.

But acting out in anger or frustration is not the only function of the shadow. It is also very much a part of the internal life of a person. The shadow is the unconcious way of coping with difficult things or mental states or even just new experiences. If the shadow is healthy and each function is in the right order and used appropriatly then it can be very helpful and can even be a guardian angel or a guiding light for ones life.

One personal growth method seems to be possible by aligning and working on the functions in the shadow. Personally my Fi is very strong, but my Se is lacking a bit. By trying to focus on my senses a bit more in daily life seems to improve me. For example if I am out exploring new things with my Ne, if I also engage my Se to "smell the roses" it helps me feel better and be a better person. That way my Fi is not off on its own in a place no one can follow. For example my morals can be very extreme where no others can follow in my ideals, even I can't follow my own morals sometimes! The second shadow function helps keep your main shadow function more stable and adaptable.

The goal is to convert this into a theory called "Shadow Theory" or "Shadow Personality Theory" (SPT). I am going on several case studies and once it is adapted to fit hundreds, it can be called a theory. In summary, more research is needed to deny or confirm - or preferably to adapt, modify, and adjust this hypothesis.

You can find out the overall ranking of all 8 of your functions here: [53] (Note: this test is sort of flawed in that your critical parent, 6th function can come up first which happened to me (INTP) and another INTP, so the Ni questions at least might not be specific enough. If this happens to you, try to retake the test being as accurate as possible to who you are right now, not who you are striving to be) or this one [54]. We need this SPT thesis integrated into personality tests so they can directly calculate the ratio of the function pairs noted below to give you a quantifiable measure of your shadow.

How high you are in your 8th function determines lawful vs chaotic. Lawful and chaotic is a throwback to DnD, where they make it clear good people can be chaotic and bad people can be lawful and vice versa. Higher in your 8th function compared to your first function means more chaotic, and lower in 8th vs 1st means more lawful. Another way to think of this is the higher the ratio between 1st and 8th function determines lawfulness. My thought is that embracing and trancending this paradigm brings great power and impact.

How high you are in your 6th function is how critical you are. This shows up mostly in self criticism.

How high you are in your 5th function is how oppositional you are. This has to do with countering opposition you experience in your life.

How high you are in your 7th function compared to your 2nd function is how deceptive or persuasive you are. High in 2nd/7th ratio means you are more straightforward and truthful. Either way it can be powerful but just needs to be used very wisely. 7th function is known as trickster and blindspot so this one can be expecially hard to use correctly. Chances are you probably despise this function and might see people who use it in thier top 2 as very polarizing people, you may either love them or hate them.

So it is an extra large task to not only combine two things, in our case personality theory with experience (game) design theory, but also extend each of these two things in a thoughtful manner.

The strength of the shadow functions are basically inverse of main stack, your 8th function is the strongest typically, 7th is 2nd strongest, 6th is 3rd, 5th is weakest. Each of the shadow functions are inverses of the respective one I just mentioned.

Unhealthy shadow - Eclipse

🎶A total eclipse of the heart🎶

An unhealthy shadow tries to become the prime personality [55]. So what this tends to look like is the primary shadow function replacing the primary prime function.

Ultimately it would look like this in an INTP:

    Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te

Instead of the healthy:

Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te

So in the case of INTP where the prime is Ti Ne Si Fe, the shadow would try to replace and exile the Ti and integrate itself to become Fi Ne Si Fe. Obviously this isn't a real stack so it will try to find stability as an INFP which would mean it would look like Fi Ne Si Te. But this isn't stable since it shares functions with the prime and you can't eliminate the prime, which will try to come back. So the shadow will tend to try to morph itself into Fi Se Ni Te and elevate itself above the prime (this might be where the term superego originated, an unhealthy shadow). So basically the shadow can try to usurp the prime personality altogether. Eclipse, if you will. In the INTP this will look like someone who has a sense of moral superiority (unhealthy Fi), and also makes bad jokes like making fun of others or themselves (unhealthy Se). If the shadow is eclipsing the prime, it is going to be bad times for the person and those around them.

Here the shadow is too strong. When the shadow elevates itself above the prime it can be thought of as "crossing the rubicon" or when "pressure turns into stress" or "being radicalized" or even the controversial "demonic possession". In mechanical terms it can be thought of as when temporary stress turns into permanent strain via plastic deformation. Breaking a person or mind control probably does this and is likely where split personalities arise from.

Don't do it to yourself. If it is being done to you, you must leave the situation or group. Don't do it to others, it might entertain you but it will most assuredly blow up in your face and you will suffer major consequences.

Improving your shadow - Shadow Therapy

Step 1: give someone a cognitive function test like this one [56] you may need to give it a couple times instructing the person to answer accurately as possible with how they are now, not how they want to be or are trying to improve to become.

Step 2: compare their cognitive function order with the optimal order for their type. This is done by dovetailing their prime stack with their shadow stack.

Step 3: for any function out of order recommend they work on the corresponding shadow function. Typically someones tertiary prime function is too low, and can be improved by working on their secondary shadow function. Their primary shadow function might also be low and working on the primary prime function can elevate it, but usually the prime can not influence the shadow, only vice versa. So you can just work on your shadow functions directly.

Here is how an optimal cognitive function test would look like

[Primary prime] [primary shadow] [secondary prime] [secondary shadow] [tertiary prime] [tertiary shadow] [quaternary prime] [quaternary shadow]
Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te
Ti  Ne  Si  Fe  Ti
    ^   ^   ^   ^
   /   /   /   /
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te

So if you need to improve a certain primary function, work on the corresponding shadow function. In the above INTP example, Si can be improved by working on Se.

Working on shadow functions can be more direct. In the above case if your Fi is low you can just do more things you are passionate about. You can work on shadow functions directly but not prime functions. You need a reason to improve a prime function and the shadow is the reason.

Shadow therapy INTP playlist [57] playlist explanation and feedback [58]

50th law robert green

Abe lincoln incorporating shadow [59]

Shadow in the bible gospels [60]

Attraction by types [61] perhaps tend to be aspirationl, idol,

DDR Music list [62] great place to pull music from. 90's party mix [63]

Personality development in growing brain development [64] supposedly primary function till 13 then secondary [65] freud secondary discharges tension [66] imaginary friends may give us clue to development of second function 2.5-10 years [67] probably peaking at 4. So basically 4 years old is when Ne is in maximum development in theory, which may correspond to shadow primary function. So 13 may be time of maximum third function development which may correspond to shadow secondary function. Age 16 might be developing tertiary function which corresponds to shadow secondary. Age 18 might be developing fourth function which corresponds to shadow tertiary. Age 25 might be developing fourth shadow function.

A couple examples are myself and Jesus. The big thing for me at 13 was EverQuest which ultimately is the reason I am writing this book. For Jesus he was found in the Temple at 12 (probably 13 too) talking to the learned people of the Tanak (Bible), maybe we can think of them as teachers or lawyers. He claimed to be doing his fathers business [68] This is interesting because a child this age should optimally be getting attached to their fathers business so their passion lines up with their family and societal needs to make for a successful young adulthood. Jesus seemed to know this truth intuitively wheras here we are thousands of years later just realizing this. It is hard for me to tell if Jesus was suffering from Narcissism or he was actually just truthful in claiming to be the son of God.

So all that said you may think after 25 you are fully developed which would be what a neuroscience perspective is. Problem is that these stages happen fast and are influenced by many factors. You may have incomplete development at any stage. Sometimes the stages get rushed, or delayed. The state of your development should show up in a cognitive functions test. A healthy INTP after age 30 or so should look like Ti leading, Fi slightly above Ne, Se slightly above Si, Ni slightly above Fe, and then Te.

Ti Fi Ne Se Si Ni Fe Te


Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te

What this may mean is that shadow development must preceed prime development and if the intp is lacking Ne it means his Fi is not developed enough or more likely if his Si is not developed enough it means Se needs to be worked on. If his Fe is not developed enough he should work on Ni. Te is a feedback to Ti, so this is a dual band ring not a straight line. Te development leads to further refining Ti and then development keeps going back down the chain. Develop your shadow and you develop your prime.

The shadow (others call it superego) is an essential part of your personality and it must be kept healthy. It is also known as the conscience [69]. The best way I have found, accomplishes keeping the shadow in check and subject to the prime personality. The best way to do this is not to supress anything, but to enliven your second shadow function aka trickster. Michi talks about how a great Heroes Journey story is a story about a protagonist overcoming challenges from their trickster function [70]. This will keep your primary shadow function (in the case of INTP, Fi) tied to the rest of the shadow so it doesn't take the first step of usurping the primary prime function.

When it comes to working on the trickster, in the case of INTP this means building Se with unique sensory experiences. This can be accomplished in conjunction with Ne, instead of buying a new book to read to excite only Ne, watch a movie or better yet go to the beach or take a walk in the forest or even sit in your backyard [71]. The sights sounds smells, etc will not only satisfy your Ne but also build your Se to pull your Fi into check. Doing this kills two birds with one stone and will also prevent your shadow from getting in a 1st-3rd function loop. In an INTP a 1st-3rd shadow loop of the Fi Se Ni Te shadow stack would look like Fi-Ni. This happens when you are scared of criticism of your ideas. Improving Se will "breakup the fight" going on in your shadow, as well as keeping your primary shadow function from usurping the prime personality.

One of the easiest ways to improve your shadow is learn more about it. Find out the MBTI type of your shadow (aka superego) and do some research on what these people are like. You might learn something about how they are, and can apply what they do to your own life to improve your shadow but make sure to search specifically for traits of a healthy version of the type and imitate that. If you are like me learning about your superego type (in INTP's case, the ISFP), especially if you focus on the offbeat stereotypes (not a good idea), may make your brain hurt that a person like this actually exists. You may feel like you hate this type. If you feel like this you may have trouble accepting your 7th function the trickster. You may use your 8th function and it may rank high in cognitive functions you actually use, but without the trickster being well developed your primary shadow (superego, 8th) function will be very rigid and unyielding. Of course the answer is to build the trickster function as outlined in the paragraphs above.

Also you can improve your 4th function which is equal and opposite to your primary shadow function which will hold your primary shadow function back "You shall not pass!". This means less trickster mastery will be needed for your shadow to stay healthy and not usurp the prime personality. More about this 4th function in relation to the shadow will be described below.

Developing the trickster may have a knock-on effect of giving you the leverage to use your autopilot (defined a few sections below) more easily, led by your 3rd function. In the INTP TiNeSiFe, this means we would have an easier time using our Si which is very important for our memory, discipline, and responsibility. Many people taking cognitive function tests (including myself) score their tertiary function in 8th place, and the underdeveloped trickster may be why.

Subconscious/inspirational function stack

Jung talked about the 4th function (in INTP it is Fe) as the gateway to the unconscious. So improving your 4th prime function can also help you keep your shadow healthy. Also known as the inferior function, the 4th function of your prime personality is sort of an "equal and opposite" to the 1st shadow function. In INTPs this is Fe which is "equal and opposite" to Fi. Thus this counterbalance can guard against the primary shadow function (Fi in INTPs) from becoming radicalized and trying to usurp your 1st prime function. This is one way in which using what CS Joseph terms the "subconscious" can be helpful. Though the subconscious personality stack doesn't exist in a person, it is sort of what a person feels as "bieng a good person" and so understanding the hypothetical subconscious stack (INTP has ESFJ - Fe Si Ne Ti) can help you become that better person. Possibly the ratio of your subconscious to shadow (superego) functions can tell you how healthy your shadow is. By definition this "subconscious" stack doesn't actually exist in your personality. But by understanding the stack it can help you improve your lowest functions. So lets instead call this your inspirational stack.

Unconcious/aspirational function stack

While we are at it, lets talk about the other conceptual stacks, firstly the "unconscious" termed by CS Joseph is the contender or perfect enemy archetype of your prime personality stack. Each of your functions is met by the equal and opposite in your contender. Also worth mentioning is that the inspirational stack outlined above is the contender to your shadow personality, which is why it can help keep the shadow in check.

So while this stack, just like the subconscious (inspirational) mentioned earlier, doesn't actually exist within you, it can be valuable to consider. Of course you have every cognitive function, but you can't just will yourself into using a full ordered stack that you don't have, and even if you did, it wouldn't be healthy. For an INTP who is Ti Ne Si Fe the contender is an ENTJ who is Te Ni Se Fi. Oftentimes a person can wish to become more like their contender [72](seems broken try:[73]) in hopes it would make them more successful in life. So we can re-term this as your aspirational stack. You don't have it but you wish you did.

Shadow merge (Idol) stack

There is another interesting stack to me and I want to call it the "Idol" stack. It is a merge between your prime and shadow stacks keeping the first function from your prime. So for INTP prime:TiNeSiFe shadow FiSeNiTe it would be ISTP TiSeNiFe. There might be something alluring about a merge between your prime and shadow functions that appeals to people. If true it might be that both your prime and shadow stacks both like it and you have this positive feedback loop bouncing back between the two like a laser shining back and forth between parallel mirrors back. Your prime finds allure in the shadow functions displayed, and the shadow finds allure in the prime functions displayed. There is no proof that this stack really does effect everyone in this way, but I tend to idolize ISTP's and I wonder if others do too. I don't know whether or not this stack can be adopted in a person but if it were, it probably wouldn't be healthy.

Intp who thinks istp is a chad [74]. As an intp I also agree istps are my idols.

Autopilot function stack

One more conceptual stack I think is possible (and there may be more, a great topic for your future book!), and that is what I am going to call your "autopilot" stack. Again this is an imaginary stack that doesn't exist in your personality but it just refers to what is happening in your mind when you go on autopilot mode. So for an INTP of Ti Ne Si Fe the autopilot is ISFJ of Si Fe Ti Ne. So this is kind of a resting mode. For an INTP when they are doing repetitive tasks they tend to fall into this mode when they are spacing out or listening to music doing repetitive chores.


I don't want people thinking that by embracing the shadow or something maladaptive like adopting your aspirational or inspirational stacks will make you a complete person who can do every function equally. You can't. We are all like unique puzzle pieces who need other people in our lives to do things we can't do and fulfill roles we can't. The entire reason your personality exists is so that you can work effectively with others and we can attempt to eventually adopt a highly social [75] network of equals where everyone works for everyone else by doing what they love to do best. This is not something that can be centrally planned but needs to arise organically slowly over time with plenty of ups and downs (rises and falls of societies). These ups and downs all bring us closer to something true that works. The truth is, the optimum society will have everyone as equals [76]. The reason the "deep state" or "elite class" try to hold us down so vehemently is because they don't want to be equals, they set themselves against human nature, and they want to use and exploit you for their own personal benefit (they probably have an unhealthy shadow function). The elite class is the definition of a pyramid scheme; It can't last and will eventually be lost and forgotten. Empowering humanity with understanding is one of the best ways to hasten this restructuring. Human empowerment will also help make this inevitable restructuring constructive, instead of destructive.


Here is where I tell you shadow personality theory is incomplete (but very useful) and how it might be expanded on in the future.

This may exist:

            Se  Fi  Te  Ni
        Si  Fe  Ti  Ne
    Te  Ni  Se  Fi
Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te
      Fe  Si  Ne  Ti
          Ni  Te  Fi  Se 
              Ne  Ti  Fe  Si 


      Se  Fi  Te  Ni
    Si  Fe  Ti  Ne
  Te  Ni  Se  Fi
Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te
    Fe  Si  Ne  Ti
      Ni  Te  Fi  Se 
        Ne  Ti  Fe  Si 
              Se  Ti  Fe  Ni

            Ne  Ti  Fe  Si
        Ni  Te  Fi  Se
    Fe  Si  Ne  Ti
Fi  Se  Ni  Te
  Ti  Ne  Si  Fe 
      Te  Ni  Se  Fi
          Si  Fe  Ti  Ne
              Se  Fi  Te  Ni

            Se  Fi  Te  Ni
        Si  Fe  Ti  Ne
    Te  Ni  Se  Fi
Ti  Ne  Si  Fe
  Fi  Se  Ni  Te
      Fe  Si  Ne  Ti
          Ni  Te  Fi  Se 
              Ne  Ti  Fe  Si

This is 8 stacks and after this it starts repeating, notice how even both a prime and their shadow cannot get to 16 functions. But honestly this does more harm than good and even if it is true (which would be almost impossible to prove through cognitive function tests), focusing on making your (1st) shadow healthy is the #1 thing you can do. Once that is done then you can move onto your aspirational and then inspirational stacks. But the most important thing about all of this is relationships with others. We don't live in a vacuum so we should develop relationships with other people who have our shadow stack, relationships with those that have our aspirational stack, and same with inspirational, and more. This will make you orders of magnitude more effective than trying to rely on these stacks in yourself. You will never be better at your shadow than people whose prime stack is your shadow. Same with aspirational. So keep that in mind.



Si  Fe  Ti  Ne  Si
    x   x   x   x
   /   /   /   /
  Ni  Te  Fi  Se  Ni
      ^   ^   ^   ^
     /   /   /   /
    Si  Fe  Ti  Ne

See also Cognitive personality theory

If you want to learn more about what we call the shadow, others call the superego so you can search for your type and superego and find lots of great information. For example web search or youtube search "ESTP superego".

Critical parent tends to show up higher than expected in this thesis [77] and I can't explain it yet.


    x   x   x   x
   /   /   /   /
  Ne  Fi  Te  Si  Ne
      ^   ^   ^   ^
     /   /   /   /
    Se  Ti  Fe  Ni


    x   x   x   x
   /   /   /   /
  Si  Te  Fi  Ne  Si
      ^   ^   ^   ^
     /   /   /   /
    Ni  Fe  Ti  Se


    x   x   x   x
   /   /   /   /
  Ni  Fe  Ti  Se  Ni
      ^   ^   ^   ^
     /   /   /   /
    Si  Te  Fi  Ne

Personality disorders

When it comes to understanding our own and others personalities, it can be extremely useful to understand various personality disorders and how they affect a persons perception.



3D model, how the types support eachother. for example inspiration and wisdom helps the intp.

Relationship types

Disclaimer: I am just discovering these so many more types of relationships are sure to exist. I do NOT want you to feel like you have to find a best friend or significant other that fits one of these types. Discover a new combination, there are 256 different combinations!

Aspirational relationships
Aspirational uneven
Aspirational even
Aspirational morph uneven
Aspirational morph even
Shadow Aspirational uneven
Shadow Aspirational even
Shadow Aspirational morph uneven
Shadow Aspirational morph even
Inspirational relationships
Inspirational uneven
Inspirational even
Inspirational morph uneven
Inspirational morph even
Shadow inspirational uneven
Shadow inspirational even
Shadow inspirational morph uneven
Shadow inspirational morph even
Twin relationships

Twin relationships tend to be exuberant and fun but might lack some leverage to help eachother accomplish eachothers goals. If you move to a new place chances are your first friend will be a Twin relationship because they can understand you quickly. Obviously the more similar, the more exuberant/intoxicating and less leverage the relationship will have in the world.

Twin uneven

This is the opposite version of your type. So if you are extraverted, this will be a relationship with the introverted version of your type, or vice versa. So with the INTP example it would be a relationship with an ENTP.

Twin even

As you could probably imagine this is your exact same type. In our INTP example it would be a relationship with another INTP.

Twin morph uneven
Twin morph even
Shadow Twin uneven
Shadow Twin even
Shadow Twin morph uneven
Shadow Twin morph even

Chapter 1 - Personality based design examples


Intro to Jungian Personality Types
Cognitive functions and function pairs (traits)

Difficulty of 1 word descriptions binary approximation.

16 types

Personality test removes overchoice

16 types is the maximum practical amount of classes in a Jungian personality based system. This can be further differentiated over time using cognitive function test for further differentiation.

8 types
4 types

This is the minimum viable amount of types that can reflect Jungian Personality. Another way to phrase this is that the Jungian personality types can be compressed to a minimum of four. There can obviously be typeless design where each player picks which of the 8 functions to develop and in what priority, but still reccomendations need to be made to the player on what skills will synergize with eachother. Classless design is the most complex, and will require the most, not least amount of work by the designer. More will be discussed on the topic in the "no types" section below.

Progression from less to more types during the experience

It can make sense to have the player pick one of 4 starting types and then make a fork choice into one of 8, and then another fork choice to one of 16. Or just from 4 to 8. Or from 8 to 16. This would mean that minimal up front personality testing is needed to select the perfect type as the player can find thier way through the course of the experience and can figure out what they like and they don't to better inform thier decisions.

No types - fully custom

Cognitive function ranking

Integrating Cognitive Function Ranking into class based system
Forcing types into your experience

Better to have fewer more niche types than inckude types you won't integrate well. Matrix original vs later ones like the keymaker and god.

Escape room

How to Play Escape Rooms | Explained for the Curious

Based on flash single player escape room games

Solving puzzles and searching. Usually 2 or 3 rooms.

5 or 6, up to 10 people

Difficulty rating and theme

Tips: cooperation and communication

Roles: manager, key master, mathematician.

Hints that nudge you in the right direction without robbing you of the satusfaction of figuring it out yourself.

1v1 competition

Mano e mano. The duel, the dogfight


Role playing game

Eve online



Chapter 2 - Fun

Everquest Next

In the moment fun, flow, story of snowboarding

Out of moment fun is more impactful. Story of my everquest adventure

My friend and i played mm6 separate but kept up with eachothers Rogression and shared secrets. Then everquest came out and he got it before shcoop let out in april. It took me a few months to convince my parents to ket me play and then I couldnt even play it because I didn't have a graohics card. Late on a friday or saturday went to comp usa and wanted a voodoo card like my friend but got cheaper savage 3d which met the minimum soecs. Friend had a 550mhz and I had 233mhz processor.

Logged in and friend was in his 30's and he told metk be a cleric as he was a warrior. So i became a cleric even though I didnt want to be one so that we could play together. He said to get to level 6 so I could get oight healing so that we could play together. So I did and then we met up in oasis and I tried to help him kill crocs. I couldnt even heal him significantly and he basically wrote me off. But he did help me do the quest to get me a screaming mace and bloodstained mantle. After the mace lost its power he bought me a cold iron morning star in kelethin.

Fun can be satisfying gameplay, fun can be majestic places. Fun can be unexpected twists like planescape torment. Fun can be a sense of progression like diablo. Fun can be breaking the game like diablo duping or uber leveling. Fun can be sharing experiences, even in single player games that you and your friends are all playing and talking about like might and magic 6 or final fantasy 7.

But the type of fun that you will never forget and will keep thinking about your entire life is overcoming severe challenge with synergistic help from others. Im not talking about someone died and someone else in your group revives you, I mean your entire group wipes and you all have to work together to get your corpses or else your bodies will dissapear for good and one teammate had to go to work and you still saved them. Overcoming all odds. Or you getting griefed by another clan over and over again and you literally forming your own clan to change the culture on the server. It may not be 100% fun in the moment but once you start making progress on an existential threat, that is fun.

Or that impossible find piece in ocarina of time that the community literally worked together to put back into the game.

Goldilocks zone of difficulty.

True story coming of age 5 ppl 10 or 11 years old designed by 13 yo. Going into the woods rules you couldnt bring food and survive for a week only hunting and fishing but one of the younger guys brought a loaf of bread. Carnival gun no rifling they couldnt hit anything . Didnt plan on eating it himself but he knew it would be hard and you didnt want to starve. Caught 2 sunfish between 4 guys. Day 2 pulled out bread and snuck a slice but got caught and everyone ate it. And you were only a few thousand feet from home. Daniel boone lets try it. Lasted until the bread ran out 4 days. Squirril at horizontal limb trunk started shooting semi auto and the bullets went everywhere around it as it ran across the limb.

Why go camping and each caught a couple fish, we could almost live on these. It was hot and the fish go deep in the canal. Couldnt catch anything 2 fish between 5 guys. 2nd day same thing. From past experience we should each catc a couple a say and supplement with a squirril. When went home and had all food it really made you appreciate it. Hungry stomach hurt really experienced it. No backpacks only army ww2 surplus. 45 years later met back up with one of the guys.

Leeroy jenkens

Pledge hour a day frat like military clean toilets trust someone give your life for them and they would help you. Taught you about cammraderie trust others understand others not jusge but grasp good or bad lessons.

Chapter 3 aesthetics

Aesthetics by personality type [78]

Part 2 - Fundamental Aspects of a Compelling Experience


Obviously I believe designing around participant personality is the most important aspect of designing a compelling experience which is why I named the book after it and the first half of the book is dedicated to that topic. However I didn't want you to be at a loss in thinking how else to flesh out your experience to be compelling and fun for participants. This second part addresses other fundamental aspects to take into consideration when developing your experience. Your players will thank you for it because they will remember for their entire lives the experiences that utilize these concepts.

Intro and aspects of mmo which is game most similar to real life experiences [79]

The following section is going to be more controversial. You may agree with some or all of the following perspectives, or you may largely disagree. In either case I hope the following chapters can at least give you a sort of checklist of game design topics to make sure you consider everything for the experience you are creating.

At the risk of loosing any shred of credibility I may have, I am going to link you to lots of youtube video titles within the following chapters (video titles so you can just search for them) that have inspired me to think deeply about certain topics. If you are looking for more content to become the best designer you can, as passively (low effort) as possible, you might appreciate these references to dig deeper.

Chapter 1 - Adversity

Its not that you need everything to be hard, but its base case should be hard and then use well designed workarounds that require teamwork or specialization. No blanket fixes either given or sold which cheapens the experience.

Josh strife hayes

Goldilocks of difficulty

Darkness, low view distance, fog - imagination fill in gaps like the horror movie whose monster is more scary when you dont know what it looks like entirely. Texture fidelity should match polygon count.

Wow devs relearning lessons from everquest [80]


Rust or classic everquest or minecraft perfect

Fast travel

youtube: fast travel RUINS MMORPG'S (by making the world feel smaller)

Youtube: Why old mmo's feel better

Wow originally gave experience for visiting new areas which was welcomed by everquest players. But rewarding people extrinsicly for something that is intrinsically rewarding cheapens it. Extrinsic rewards have a way of actually erasing the delicate intrinsic rewards. Make it more intrinsic. Make traveling and exploring even more intrinsically rewarding, is the answer.

Celtic heroes must explore area to gain access to leystone

Everquest had fast travel spells but they were limited and difficult and empowered certain classes.

Casters have gate.

Choice between fast travel and long travel isn't a choice, only a masochist would choose it.


Theme park, you need to travel between rides, and wait in lines. When park opens in order to bypass the line you literally run to the ride you want to be first. Also it is often worth waiting longer to get the front of the ride.


Mounts are great and should be difficult to get but they should not make you fly above the world you spent so much time to develop. Wow fragonflight designed the levels with flying in mind.

No official wiki. Let the players make it and while it isn't made, players actually have to ask others in game for help.

No in game maps or mini maps. Let players draw up maps based on their own exploration outside the game. Everquest launched with only basic maps of the starting cities inside the game booklet. Overlay minimal worked well for diablo procedurally generated levels.

Addons and mods happen and if player feels like they need to use it then it worsens the experience and overcomplicates things and is a hurdle for new players.

Bravery requires fear. Things should be scary and dangerous and will then be memorable. Even leeroy jenkens story has aspects of this.

Some say wow died when you went from being called adventurer to hero

npc assist helps cure adversity, town guards and camp in dagnors in everquest.

There is something to travel hubs, like waiting for the boat with others in everquest which enhances greatly the sense of impending adventure. Think of it like a harbinger a foreshadowing. The travel hub should include symbolic reerences and things to inspire the imagination of what lies beyond.

Difficulty levels

[81] youtube:My Response... Is WoW's Raid Design Even Fit For Purpose?

Chapter 2 - Teamwork

don't directly force teamwork or interaction [82] youtube: 7 Deadly Sins of MMO Design - 5: Wrath - Forced Interaction or PVP

However you do want to make challenges that will require multiple people but forcing having 2 people do a quest together for example old school runescape example, makes people feel awkward. Always better to make people want to work together instead of having a checklist of "gather 3 people". For example if I want to have multiple people take a boat ride together I can make encounters that require multiple people. If they go alone they can do it, but they might not make it alive. It makes the players feel like it was thier idea to rally a team instead of just checking off a box. Also don't make pve players feel like they need to enter pvp. If you want hard challenge make it pve challenge. Everquest had training and open world competition which was good challenge for pve players.

[83] Youtube:Do You REALLY Want To Play An MMO? Real Talk.

[84] youtube:Blizzard's Big Struggle: Just WHO Is WoW Made For?


Usually becomes one sided [85] youtube:How One of the LAST Classic WoW Servers Fell | Asmongold Reacts to WillE

Chapter 3 - Progression



Not pulling everyone to group 2 monetizable [86]

Treadmill neverwinter and celtic heroes.

Levels should add incrementally or with diminishing returns. [87]

You don't want to turn progression into a treadmill youtube:This Is NOT What Players Want [88]

Player housing [89] youtube:Is WoW Just An Old Game Now?

Chapter 4 - Immersion

Perspective, 1st vs 3rd person

Cohesiveness, everything makes sense in context. Includes optional cosmetics, should make sense in context.

Music is essential. Twisted metal. Road rash. Everquest.

Weightiness of movement [90] youtube:Did Blizzard WRECK Dragonflight's Best Feature?

Chapter 5 - Communication

Chapter 6 - Visual satisfaction

Hitting beebop and rocksteady on NES TMNT 2.

Chapter 7 - updates and expansions and support and maintainance

See also monetization

Open source, private servers, minecraft

Realities of running an old game [91] youtube:Is WoW Just An Old Game Now?

consolidating servers, a case for it [92] youtube:How One of the LAST Classic WoW Servers Fell | Asmongold Reacts to WillE

Chapter 8 - Death penalty and boss

Death in Raft is great makes for good teamwork [93]

Everquest study.

Best option would be everquest but that monsters loose aggro with you when you are knocked out.

Chapter 9 - Monetization

Box price


Youtube: Micro-transactions RUIN MMORPG's (and why they do)

creating a problem to sell the solution




Power vs cosmetic

Non monetized cosmetics - collecting

[94] youtube:7 Deadly Sins of MMO Design - 3: Greed - Excessive Monetization [95] Never add adversity to the game and then circumvent it with monetization this makes the game feel cheap and breaks the immersion created by the adversity. Don't double dip. Choose one monetization scheme and stick to it. No monthly sub and cash shop. Box price plus sub makes sense. Box price plus microtransactions isn't. Microtransactions and season pass is ok. Box price and expansions is ok. Box price and expansions and sub is ok.

85% of monetization happens for endgame players so do not try to monetize new players, trying to "get them used to spending money" will just make them uninstall your game [96] youtube: Dev Log: Talking to Chris Wilson about Path of Exile

Customers as in "customer is always right", and the customer is our boss - as opposed to consumers who are useless eaters. There is a great benefit to working your yourself. Instead of one boss who can fire you for anything, working for yourself means the only perople who can fire you are yourself, if you quit, or your customers leaving you. Chances are all your customers won't leave at the same time so you have hundreds or thousands of bosses.

Chapter 10 - Time Limitation

Discord or Twitter vs escape room or r/place, feeling like you have to catch up with what you missed.

Wow originally had rested xp.

Time gating is bad, and dailypies are again extrinsic rewards killing delicate intrinsic rewards.

Time gating not okay [97] youtube:7 Deadly Sins of MMO Design - 4: Sloth - Lazy Design and Time-Gating

Things that take time can be good like cooking in Raft [98]

Chapter 11 - Alignments

Chaotic or lawful, good or evil.

Big 5 neuroticism, 16 personalities assertive vs turbulent

Can change you like, Black and White

Chapter 12 - permanence and persistance


Chapter 13 - integration with blockchain

Nft's, new possibilities like BlockTock, CollectBit (my inventions but it is all free open source).

Chapter 14 - Competition

The case against competition [99] youtube:Sustainable Personality - The Domino Effect Of Competition

Contested content

In a cooperative experience, competition will most likely arise our of groups or communities competing with eachother for player vs environment (pve) content. This will happen most commonly in persistant open world non-instanced experiences.

Players will also compete for the rewards from cooperative experiences.


Randomness and voluntaryism

Player vs Player

Direct player vs player is typically not the most popular way to play in primarily player vs environment games. In fact when it is added most of the players don't like it. New World. First mmo meridian 59.

This may seem strange because battle royale or first person shooters have the opposite problem, people typically don't really care much for the campaign which is PvE. Fortnite battle royale vs Fortnite save the world.

Apex legends and other hero based shooters like Overwatch integrate the team based synergy while also keeping a main focus on PvP. Apex integrates battle royale aspects like searching for loot and upgrading gear from battle royales, while also focusing on synergistic teams from hero shooters. They also include small elements of PvE such as monsters jump out and attack you in certain areas while you are building your arsenal, and also raid targets.

Chapter 15 - limited choices

Chapter 16 - endgame

youtube: Endgame RUINS MMORPG'S (because getting to it sucks)

Player chased state:

Diablo 2


Mud become gm, swg become jedi.

Old school runescape

Mythic Burnout [100] youtube:REPORT: These Numbers TERRIFIED Blizzard: Dragonflight Will NOT Be The Same.

If you make endgame the game, it rapidly devolves into players want only the boss and nothing else [101] youtube: Blizzard Is Killing WoW.. this player wants an even more mindless whitebread version of endgame and most hardcore players will agree.

youtube: Should MMORPGs have an ending? [102]

Chapter 17 - Bots

Chapter - Story

Chosen one trope doesnt work in multiplayer [103] Lord of the rings frodo. Dnd started where you were just a peon in the battle and probably wouldnt survive but if you did, amazing things happened. Lotr frodo fought destiny of ring returning to sauron. Star wars luke fought destiny of becoming like his father. Matrix neo discovered destiny thoughout story.. means choices hardwork and getting up again matter. There is no guarentee of sucess.

youtube: What Makes a Great Movie [104] Protagonist going against thier blindspot (7th function).

Chapter - Meta

[105] meta is not bad but it denotes a lack of meaningful choices. Parallel content of various and different use cases so meta is different for everyone. Worst thing you can do is make arbitrary changes that change but doesnt improve the meta. This is an insult to the players.

Game 1 and game 2 blizzard. Lots of good ideas here and one is that if the game is designed so you feel you have to keep up with the pace of content you have less latitude for alts and experimenting breaking the meta. [106] Youtube: Blizzard or Players… Who’s Fault Is It? Path of diablo does a good job with this only releasing content at set intervals when more than 95% or so of consistent players have done everything they wanted to do in the season.

Diablo 2 had many good builds and somebuilds that may not have been as good were unique and could do thi gs others couldnt. In that game specific items were created to make a new build viable, this is parallel content and counters any one path meta.

Leveling paths in everquest.

Class builds and specs.

Holy trinity meta, story of moif, broken with personality based.

High level mobs in low level areas like everquest is another way to break meta of endgame.

If a 1 dimensional meta exists those that follow it will peer pressure others to follow it for min maxing groups from eq

Incremental gains or even diminishing returns especially at endgame instead of exponential gains. Yes exponential gains feel good in the moneent but the feeling is fleeting. Same in progression. Ability to play with friends of any level more important than exponential gains in ability by leveling.

Variations can help, random amounts of monster health and other things makes things unpredictable and fun. Random spawn times for bosses can be good or bad. Having relatively constant times is beneficial so players can organize, but it should be somewhere between random and set. Random strengths and weaknesses can make things interesting but perhaps more frustrating. Balance is needed. You cant know ahead of time because then min maxing would leave out certain players. With personality based classes your groups will have abilities to deal with differences in meta on fights.

Game adapts to beat you, gains more resistance to slash when slash used, fire, etc.

Meta not solved for all time, but discovered and solved on the fly.

How do you disrupt the meta? In two words, 'you don't'. Disrupting the meta (nerfing or making the current meta obsolete) is the fastest way to get your most devoted fans to hate you. Get members on your team who have strong Ne to come up with ideas (also people with high Ni and Te should be fielding ideas from the community), which then can be judged by those high in Ti and Fi, to compliment and enlarge the meta, never try to disturb it. By enlarge I mean make other choices aised from the current meta, a little more lucrative. Diablo 2 example helm for wolfform barb making another build viable. The only somewhat viable way of disrupting the meta is in Path of Diablo where every ladder is fresh and likely has a new meta, but even then devs cannot stray too far from the current meta or players just don't feel like playing that season, and you can loose them from the season to season train altogether.

emergent gameplay

Players inventing and sharing creative and non obvious metas should not be changed so that these methods dont work. This is emergent content.

Eq trading was supposed to happen in cities and not all players could be allowed in every city. Players got around this by trading outside cities, then later at a crntral location in the wilderness at a popular crossroads.. diablo 2 uber leveling because of a bug. These were some of the funnest parts of the game and kept plaayers playing longdr than they would have.

Habitat ethics

Chapter - Minigames

Oregon trail hunting overshadowed main game.

Namco loading screen minigame patent.

Need to be necessary like the above two. Do not add uneccesary minigames. See marketing

Chapter - Iteration

It is impossible to taje everything into an account and make a perfect game at the start. You will need to interate during the course of the live service game or between the different games you launch. Ultima online ultimas before.

Chapter - Marketing

The best marketing you have is other players inviting thier friends to play. Celtic heroes example. Games tend to take thier current players as granted and focus on ways to bring in new players. But new players that join from marketing will not be as sticky as people whos friends got them to play. Please long time customers by improving the main game and addressing player issues and you will get lots of freemarketing and the long time players will continue playing. [107] youtube:7 Deadly Sins of MMO Design - 2: Gluttony - Feature Creep


Using a few case studies my hypothesis is that there are two main ages when children are the most impressionable. Four years old and thirteen. There may be others as well. This information can obviously be used for evil to manipulate children but my supposition is the bad companies already know this so we need to know it as well to protect our families, and exhibit responsibility for what sort of experiences we design that are marketed for children in general. If you use this information, use it for good to empower the youth, not enslave them. And instead of a negative relationship you can develop a positive, mutually beneficial, life long relationship with them.

The 4 yo age is when a person is first coming into awareness of the world. This might be when they start collecting things or getting really into a certain show or game. In my case it was teenage mutant ninja turtles in 1990. For my brother it was power rangers in 1993. At 4 it seems like a child looks around for what is cool and interesting and latches onto it, making it a part of their identity. Interestingly Donatello was the purple turtle and has been typed as an INTP just like me, so that one being my far and away favorite, makes sense (followed distantly by rafael who turns out to be an ISTP which is a similar type). Also it just so happens my favorite color has been purple (and orange too, which are complimentary). Although my brother liked power rangers much more than tmnt (probably based on how new and exciting power rangers was when he was 4 years old, and also the fact there was no INTJ turtle), his favorite turtle was Michelangelo an ESFP which is the inverse of his personality INTJ, basically mikey was his closest personality match of the 4. Interestingly as I said my two favorite colors are purple and orange, and Michelangelo was orange and was the closest personality type to my shadow, ISFP. TMNT and Power Rangers, whether they knew it or not, very much used personality based experience design and are very much case studies in this topic.

At 13 the "childish" likes of their youth are replaced with impressions that lead the young adult into their calling in life. If the previous impressions at 4 are not deemed childish at 13, then they can continue as well. For a friend of mine her babysitter introduced her to new kids on the block at a very young age and it made it past the 13 checkpoint, and now at 34 she is writing a book on cults (so imagine NKOTB was not the healthiest obsession and can be a case study on negative use of targeting to children). For me none of my 4 yo obsessions (besides the color purple and my obsession with bo staffs in martial arts) passed the 13 yo test and my 13 yo impression turned out to be something brand new to me, Everquest in 1999 ... And my obsession with Everquest is the very reason I am writing this book at 36. The impressions you have at 13 can truly direct your life, for better or worse. These ages aren't vacuums, meaning it isn't just this particular year that matters and nothing else. In my case my love for Everquest was sort of predicted by games I liked before then such as Diablo, Might and Magic 6, and others. In fact the friend that got me into Diablo originally I eventually got him into Everquest and when playing everquest he decided he wanted to become a game developer, and now he is a senior game designer at Blizzard. And here I am writing a book on game design. Funny how things play out in life.

Parents do need to be aware of these ages not necessarily to shelter them, but make sure that at and before these ages you are exposing children to a wide range of high quality interesting things so that when their mind does latch on to something, it was out of a myriad of possibilities. Think of it like a relationship, the more friends you have to choose from the better a spouse you can find. If you have limited options then your choice will be from a limited pool. It also helps to know personality development in childhood so you can accurately figure out the type of your child to help find them things that will appeal to them. For example my parents mostly had me play sports and do acting and modeling, but as an INTP this wasn't the best move and my mind never latched on to any of them. Tailor The experiences you expose them to, or allow them to be exposed to, to the personality type of your child. The more and better (in tune with their personality) options the child has to choose from, the more precise their mind can be in selecting what to care about, and the more passionate and motivating and driving the obsession will be, even into adulthood. You want them to be a passionate adult, even if it is in something you don't think is valuable. Again who would think an obsession with everquest would be a good thing for their child back when dialup was still the internet? Now talks of the virtual reality metaverse puts my obsession in the limelight, and me towards the center of designing it. Perhaps I will play a role in helping make sure that the metaverse is positive instead of negative.

Chapter - Motivation

Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation and extrinsic is harmful to player wellbieng [108] youtube: AAA design makes you unhappy, and research is proving it

Chapter - Retention

Letting endgame top lvl players leave then come back is better than trying to keep them constantly on a treadmill while letting most of your players fall behind [109] youtube:We Found the TRUTH: The Numbers Behind FFXIV’s Explosive Growth

youtube: Why is every game dying? [110]

Chapter - Public

How should your team interact with the public? Encourage them to make a new social media presence as a team member which is an extension of their role. Their private social media is their own and they have freedom of speech with that and they never should feel pressure or even be asked about it. The team has no right to know about a members personal social media or social presence.

Chapter - Tutorial

Best onboarding process Dark Souls 1 [111] youtube:How to Design a Tutorial

Chapter - Middleground

Usually the truth is somewhere in the middle. The task is to uncover new factors and not necessarily go all the way to the new factor, but to find a compromise in the middle. Middle grounding is not necessarily best, it is best to find your audience and tailor it to them.

Chapter - Liminal experiences

Liminal experiences are like waiting for the boat in everquest. There can be special magic because there is only 1 typical goal, wait. So whatever you do and say in this time is truley free and unbounded by any preconcieved notions. Everyone in this place are receptive to new stimuli since they probably don't have anything they were planning to do. A waiting room. It can be boring, or exciting because you can do anything. So in these situations give people options of things to do, preferably emergent content-like and watch people find it nostalgic.

GM events, competitions, seasonal/special events, instances, even boss fights can be viewed as Liminal experiences [112]

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