Made in fat cells, cardiomyocytes, pancreatic B cells (possibly along with insulin), macrophages, and of course hepatocytes. [1]

Erytyropoetin and growth hormone decreases hepcidin, leading to more iron absorption. Also hepcidin levels (like cortisol) are diurnal with levels lowest in early morning and increasing throughout the day. [2] This might mean that early waking insomnia might be due to low hepcidin. However hepcidin does not seem to correlate with sleep time [3]

Lack of hepcidin leads to over abosrption of iron and iron deficiency in macrophages. [4] See also GLA for how macrophages effect inflammation. Macro0hages produce cox-2 and pge2 which regulate inflammation [5] it is reasonable to think that hepcidin, which strongly influencez magrophage iron levels, could play a big role in excess or deficiency of PGE2 prostaglandins, causing possible insomnia or hypersomnia.

Excess iron leads macrophages to increase inflammatory expression, so these would be reduced in low hepcidin iron overload [6] apparently.

Il-6 and tnfa are opposite cox-2 [7] so this means if you have iron overload, you have low macrophage iron which means you have low il6 and tnfa so you have high cox-2 so you have high pge2!

And we have come full circle, as pge2 is anti sleep and pgd2 is pro sleep. [8]

macrophages normally only release pge2 but some can release pgd2 which might cause narcolepsy? [9]

pged/d2 rapidly secreted from macrophages infected with yersinia and salmonella. [10]

Iron in cells decreases pge2 manufacture [11] which leads to excess pge2 in low hepcidin hemochromatosis conditions.

Hepcidin ferritin ratio

Low ratio signifies cirrosis [12]

Insomnia and Chronic Fatigue

Higher hepcidin linked to less daytime sleepiness [13].

Causes of elevated hepcidin

Hepatic adenoma [14]

Prostate cancer, breast cancer, non hodgekins lymphoma [15]

H pylori elevates hepcidin causing anemia [16] is it possible the body mutates HFE generationally to stop the anemia?

Homocysteine from folic acid deficiency upregulates hepcidin [17]

Mycobacterium especially m tuberculosis elevates hepcidin as well [18]. Possible this chronic infection can also lead to HFE gene mutation so the body can get iron in spite of chronic infection?

Brucella or other bacteria [19]. Brucella is also an intracellular bacteria which feeds of macrophage iron which high hepcidin creates. Therefore brucella might be the leading candidate for the body shutting off the HFE gene in hemochromatosis.

Low transferin receptor 2 or IL6 [20].

Vitamin a or d deficiency may cause and il6 may raise [21]. Vitamin a deficiency may raise ferritin which is marker for hemochromatosis

Causes of low hepcidin

Low Insulin [22] and thus low carotenoids [23] since serum retinol increases insulin but can also cause insulin resistance.

Vitamin A boosts insulin secretion up to 30% and reduces inflammation effect on pancreatic beta cells [24].

High testosterone from elevated LH [25]

Lowering hepcidin

See anemia

Raising hepcidin

See Iron overload

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