Related to estrogen and prolactin. Also to meningitis from mycobacterium along with hypogonadism [1]

Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the chest wall [2].

Sternum injury especially with m tuberculosis causes gynecomastia [3].

Estrogen elevated by m tuberculosis [4].

Compilation [5].

PGE2 can cause it by elevating aromatase


Leydig cell tumor causes increased testosterone [6] or estrogen [7]


Adenovirus [8]


Newborn gynecomastia likely from elevated homocysteine from low diamine oxidase in the mother from low folic acid [9]

Also gyno is noticed in puberty where boys experience huge increases of dopamine receptors [10]. Homocysteine interacts and blocks dopamine receptors which may cause the gyno.

And yes gyno is caused by prolactin over production due to dopamine receptor blockade [11]. Of course this is due to homocysteine in most cases.

Pernicious anemia

Cobalamin deficiency linked to gyno [12]

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