Filtration

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Filtration is about three things; flocculation and polar and non-polar attraction. All of these are based on electric charge.

Flocculation

Flocculants can include alkali or alkaline minerals like calcium carbonate (seashells), magnesium oxide, etc. Calcium hydroxide can be used but greatly increases pH.[1]

Polar

Polar water purifiers can include silicon dioxide (Activated Sand, diatomaceous earth, silica gel, etc). Slow sand filter also use this principle.

Non-Polar

Non polar water purifiers include activated charcoal.

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adsorption

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