Linked to COX2 Causes wakefulness and decreasing of slow wave sleep and paradoxical sleep [1].

Causes migraines [2]. Perhaps because of its effect on NMDA and therefore might play a part in herxheimer reaction.

Intricately linked to chronic fatigue, insomnia, and intracellular bacteria infections of the monocytes. Also linked to iron overload and GLA. One way it can cause iron overload hemochromatosis is by inducing the stomach to produce excess acid [3].

PGE2 linked to calcium, iron, and NMDA [4]

Iron chelators enhance PGE2 probably by making the iron more active to participate in Fenton reactions [5].

PGE2 seems to elevate NMDA or perhaps vice versa [6]. This might be a part of the herxheimer reaction.

Upregulated in Rickettsia intracellular bacteria [7]

Reduces cellular immunity [8].

PGE2 upregupated in mercury exposure [9] [10] which might mean it helps mercury detox or maybe it hurts it.

Stimulated by legume exposure and high iron [11].

PGE2 increased in strongyloides infection [12] which might mean pge2 is used by the body to fight it.

PGE2 increased by h pylori [13] which might mean pge2 is used by the body to fight it.

Hepcidin can be upregulated by the same things that upregulate pge2 [14]. This might cause the body to shut off the HFE gene in hemochromatosis.

Causes of upregulation

See also COX2

Chronic Hepatitis B infection [15].

Strongyloides infection [16] or other worms [17].

IL6 increases PGE2 while PGE2 increases IL6 [18] which sounds like it can cause a positive feedback loop.

Homocysteine elevation via NMDA [19]


Lymphocyte sensitization to PGE2 linked to stressful events [20]

Zinc reverses PGE2 sensitivity by lymphocytes [21]


Too much

Stimulates aromatase which converts testosterone to estrogen causing gynecomastia [22].

Stimulates Th2 immunity which imporves strongyloides outcomes [23].

Activates histamine system [24].

PGE2 allows for breathing [25] so too powerful an inhibitor could cause respiratory collapse and SIDS. Also too much PGE2 can have a similar effect by fatiguing the astrocytes.

Can cause abnormal fetal heart beating (heart palpitations) following PGE2 administration for induction of pregnancy [26].

Causes high blood pressure and diabetes [27].

Induces IL-10 and reduces IL-12 [28]

Too little

Can increase propensity to anaphylaxis [29].


Bisibilol and ginger reduced pge2 [30] [31]. Echinacea possibly as well [32].

Mentha Longifolia (and maybe peppermint) reduced pge2 and COX2 [33].

Other pages that link to PGE2:


Attachments to PGE2:

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